Changes in Chromosomal Localization of Heterochromatin-binding Proteins during the Cell Cycle in Drosophila

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We examined the heterochromatic binding of GAGA factor and proliferation disrupter (Prod) proteins during the cell cycle in Drosophila melanogaster and sibling species. GAGA factor binding to the brownDominant AG-rich satellite sequence insertion was seen at metaphase, however, no binding of GAGA factor to AG-rich sequences was observed at interphase in polytene or diploid nuclei. Comparable mitosis-specific binding was found for Prod protein to its target satellite in pericentric heterochromatin. At interphase, these proteins bind numerous dispersed sites in euchromatin, indicating that they move from euchromatin to heterochromatin and back every cell cycle. The presence of Prod in heterochromatin for a longer portion of the cell cycle than GAGA factor suggests that they cycle between euchromatin and heterochromatin independently. We propose that movement of GAGA factor and Prod from high affinity sites in euchromatin occurs upon condensation of metaphase chromosomes. Upon decondensation, GAGA factor and Prod shift from low affinity sites within satellite DNA back to euchromatic sites as a self-assembly process.

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