Research was undertaken to compare problem-solving treatment for primary care (PST-PC) with usual care for minor depression and to examine whether treatment effectiveness was moderated by coping style. PST-PC is a 6-session, manual-based, psychosocial skills intervention. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2 academic, primary care clinics. Those subjects who were eligible were randomized (N = 151), and 107 subjects completed treatment (57 PST-PC, 50 usual care) and a 35-week follow-up. Analysis with linear mixed modeling revealed significant effects of treatment and coping, such that those in PST-PC improved at a faster rate and those initially high in avoidant coping were significantly more likely to have sustained benefit from PST-PC.