Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, CCN2) gene regulation: a potent clinical bio-marker of fibroproliferative disease?

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The CCN (cyr61, ctgf, nov) family of modular proteins regulate diverse biological affects including cell adhesion, matrix production, tissue remodelling, proliferation and differentiation. Recent targeted gene disruption studies have demonstrated the CCN family to be developmentally essential for chondrogenesis, osteogenesis and angiogenesis. CCN2 is induced by agents such as angiotensin II, endothelin-1, glucocorticoids, HGF, TGFβ, and VEGF, and by hypoxia and biomechanical and shear stress. Dysregulated expression of CCN2 has also been widely documented in many fibroproliferative diseases. This mini-review will focus on CCN2, and the recent progress in understanding CCN2 gene regulation in health and disease. That CCN2 should be considered a novel and informative surrogate clinical bio-marker for fibroproliferative disease is discussed.

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