We measured total peroxidase activity and the activities of peroxidase isoforms in leaves of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings exposed to wounding and plant hormones in the greenhouse. Activity of specific peroxidase isoforms was induced differentially by gypsy moth wounding, mechanical wounding, and the wound-associated plant hormone jasmonic acid. Activity of one isoform was enhanced modestly by treatment with salicylate. A study of peroxidase activity in naturally occurring galls elicited on red oak leaves by 12 hymenopteran and dipteran insect species found 16 POD isoforms, 11 of which were differentially induced or suppressed in galls compared with leaves. In both studies, total peroxidase activity as measured spectrophotometrically was not clearly related to activity of these isoforms. These results indicate that red oak seedlings and trees may respond specifically to wounding, particular insects, and plant signals through changes in the activities of individual isozymes.