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Health care simulation, as a complement to traditional learning, has spread widely and seems to benefit both students and patients. The teaching methods involved in health care simulation require substantial human, logistical, and financial investments that might preclude their spread in developing countries. The aim of this study was to analyze the health care simulation experiences in developing countries.A comprehensive literature search was performed from January 2000 to December 2016. Articles reporting studies on educational health care simulation in developing countries were included.In total, 1161 publications were retrieved, of which 156 were considered eligible based on title and abstract screening. Thirty articles satisfied our predefined selection criteria. Most of the studies were case series; 76.7% (23/30) were prospective and comparative, and five were randomized trials. The development of dedicated task trainers and telesimulation were the primary techniques assessed. The retrieved studies showed encouraging trends in terms of trainee satisfaction with improvement after training, but the improvements were mainly tested on the training tool itself. Two of the tools have been proven to be construct valid with clinical impact.Health care simulation in developing countries seems feasible with encouraging results. Higher-quality studies are required to assess the educational value and promote the development of health care simulation programs.