GNRHR Mutations in a Woman with Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism Highlight the Differential Sensitivity of Luteinizing Hormone and Follicle-Stimulating Hormone to Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone

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Mutations in the GnRH receptor gene (GNRHR) are a cause of idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. We describe a normosmic female subject with congenital idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in whom treatment with pulsatile GnRH resulted in an unusual response. The subject not only required an increased dose of pulsatile GnRH for ovarian follicular development, but LH secretion did not increase appropriately, estradiol levels remained low, and she did not ovulate spontaneously.

Sequencing of the GNRHR coding sequence revealed compound heterozygous mutations leading to amino acid substitutions [N10K+Q11K] and P320L. The introduction of the P320L mutation into the GnRH receptor led to failure of detectable ligand binding and failure of stimulation of inositol phosphate production and gonadotropin subunit gene promoter activity in response to GnRH in transiently transfected cells. The [N10K+Q11K] mutation resulted in reduced binding of a GnRH agonist to 25% of the wild-type receptor. In addition, the EC50 value for GnRH stimulation of inositol phosphate production was significantly increased, and the dose-response curves for stimulation of α gonadotropin subunit, LHβ, and FSHβ gene transcription by GnRH were similarly shifted to the right. Stimulation of FSHβ gene transcription was more sensitive to GnRH than LHβ for both wild-type and [N10K+Q11K] GnRH receptors, resulting in a greater loss of LHβ stimulation than FSHβ by the [N10K+Q11K] mutant at any given submaximal GnRH concentration.

We propose that the mutations in the GnRH receptor result in a rightward shift of the dose-response curves of gonadotropin responses to pulsatile GnRH in the subject and unmask the differential sensitivities of LH and FSH to GnRH, resulting in low LH and estradiol levels despite appropriate FSH secretion and follicular growth.

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