Some cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension and insulin resistance, are associated with endothelial dysfunction. Insulin regulates both in vitro and in vivo expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) via a pathway involving insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase. Recently, we found that human endothelial cells obtained from carriers of the Arg972 IRS-1 polymorphism exhibited reduced eNOS expression in response to chronic exposure to insulin. A reduction in eNOS expression would be expected to be associated with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation. To investigate a possible relationship between Arg972 IRS-1 polymorphism and endothelial dysfunction in vivo, we enrolled a cohort of 100 never-treated hypertensive subjects. Endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilation were assessed by increasing doses of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside. IRS-1 polymorphism was detected by PCR. The allelic frequency of the Arg972 IRS-1 variant was 8.0%. Stratifying subjects according to IRS-1 genotype, we observed that acetylcholine-stimulated forearm blood flow was significantly (P < 0.0001) lower in Gly/Arg heterozygous carriers than in Gly/Gly carriers (11.3 ± 4.4 vs. 14.7 ± 5.9 ml/100 ml−1 of tissue per min−1). Sodium nitroprusside caused comparable increments in forearm blood flow in both groups (12.9 ± 2.4 vs. 13.3 ± 3.5 ml/100 ml−1 of tissue per min−1). Our data strongly suggest that, by inducing endothelial dysfunction, the Arg972 IRS-1 polymorphism may contribute to the genetic predisposition to develop cardiovascular disease.