Mandibuloacral dysplasia (MAD) is a rare autosomal recessive progeroid syndrome due to mutations in genes encoding nuclear lamina proteins, lamins A/C (LMNA) or prelamin A processing enzyme, and zinc metalloproteinase (ZMPSTE24).Objective:
The aim of the study was to investigate the underlying genetic and molecular basis of the phenotype of a 7-yr-old girl with MAD belonging to a consanguineous pedigree and with severe progeroid features and lipodystrophy.Design and Patient:
The patient developed mandibular hypoplasia during infancy and joint stiffness, skin thinning, and mottled hyperpigmentation at 15 months. Progressive clavicular hypoplasia, acroosteolysis, and severe loss of hair from the temporal and occipital areas were noticed at 3 yr. At 5 yr, cranial sutures were still open and lipodystrophy of the limbs was prominent. GH therapy from the ages of 3-7 yr did not improve the short stature. Severe joint contractures resulted in abnormal posture and decreased mobility. We studied her skin fibroblasts for nuclear morphology and immunoblotting and determined the in vitro effects of various pharmacological interventions on fibroblasts.Results:
LMNA gene sequencing revealed a homozygous missense mutation, c.1579C>T, p.Arg527Cys. Immunoblotting of skin fibroblast lysate with lamin A/C antibody revealed no prelamin A accumulation. Immunofluorescence staining of the nuclei for lamin A/C in fibroblasts revealed marked nuclear morphological abnormalities. This abnormal phenotype could not be rescued with inhibitors of farnesyl transferase, geranylgeranyl transferase, or histone deacetylase.Conclusion:
Severe progeroid features in MAD could result from LMNA mutation, which does not lead to accumulation of prenylated lamin A or prelamin A.