A Population-Based Study Examining Calcaneus Quantitative Ultrasound and Its Optimal Cut-Points to Discriminate Osteoporotic Fractures among 9352 Chinese Women and Men

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Abstract

Context:

No generally accepted thresholds for quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters to screen individuals at high risk of osteoporotic fractures have been defined.

Objective:

We sought to define appropriate cutoff points for osteoporotic fractures of calcaneus ultrasound according to participants' prevalent osteoporotic fractures.

Design and Setting:

This was a cross-sectional, population-based study conducted in Shanghai, China.

Participants:

A total of 9352 Chinese women and men aged 40 and older were studied.

Main Outcome Measures:

We measured calcaneus QUS (Achilles Express, GE Lunar) values and their relationships with osteoporotic fractures.

Results:

A prevalence of 14.9 and 12.2% of osteoporotic fractures was found in the women and men (P < 0.001), respectively. Subjects with osteoporotic fractures had significantly lower QUS values than those without (P < 0.001). One SD decline in the stiffness index (SI)-derived T-score was associated with a high risk of nonvertebral fracture [odds ratio (OR) = 1.50; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.39–1.62; P < 0.001], clinical vertebral fracture (OR = 1.49; 95% CI, 1.18–1.90; P < 0.01), and multi-fractures (OR = 1.98; 95% CI, 1.63–2.40; P < 0.001). The receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that QUS could differentiate osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women and men, but not in premenopausal women. The optimal cutoff points for the SI-derived T-score to detect a high risk of nonvertebral fractures, clinical vertebral fractures, and multi-fractures were −1.25, −1.55, and −1.80 in postmenopausal women, respectively, and −1.30, −1.90, and −2.00 in males, respectively.

Conclusions:

As a screening tool, the SI-derived T-score obtained from the Achilles QUS device for a postmenopausal woman or man that is less than −1.25 and −1.30, respectively, may indicate an increased risk of osteoporotic fractures and should be further evaluated by central DXA.

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