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Cushing syndrome (CS) in children is associated with residual impairment in measures of health-related quality of life, even after successful resolution of hypercortisolemia, highlighting the need for early identification of morbidities and improvements in long-term management of these patients.A PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science search of articles from 1900 onward identified available studies related to quality of life and complications of pediatric CS as well as important historical articles. This review summarizes studies through November 2012 and highlights recent developments.A review of the literature identifies significant morbidities associated with CS of pediatric onset, which must not be treated in isolation. CS affects children and adolescents in many ways that are different than adults. Post-treatment challenges for the child or adolescent treated for CS include: optimize growth and pubertal development, normalize body composition, and promote psychological health and cognitive maturation. All these factors impact health-related quality of life, which is an important outcome measure to assess the burden of disease as well as the effect of treatment. Future research efforts are needed to improve management of the physical, psychological, and emotional aspects of this disease in order to diminish the residual impairments experienced by the pediatric CS patient population.