Several cohort studies have reported U-shaped or inverse J-shaped associations between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25OHD] and clinical outcomes.Objective:
We aimed to investigate in cardiac surgical patients the association of preoperative 25OHD and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] levels with the risk of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE).Design:
A prospective cohort study of adult cardiac surgical patients in 2012–2013 was used.Setting:
The study was conducted at the Heart and Diabetes Center North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.Patients:
A total of 3371 adult patients participated in the study.Intervention:
The main outcome measure was MACCE until discharge. We categorized vitamin D metabolite levels into subgroups and performed multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios (ORs) of MACCE. Moreover, we performed multiple regression analysis to assess the association of 25OHD and circulating 1,25(OH)2D3 with preoperative parameters.Results:
As compared with patients in the 25OHD reference category (75–100 nmol/L), the multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR) of MACCE was significantly higher in patients with deficient 25OHD levels (< 30 nmol/L) (OR = 2.06 [95%CI: 1.24–3.43]), but was comparable in patients with 25OHD levels > 100 nmol/L (OR = 1.16 [95% CI: 0.56–2.37]). Poor kidney function was an important predictor of high 25OHD (>100 nmol/L) and low 1,25(OH)2D3 levels. 1,25(OH)2D3 was not independently associated with the incidence of MACCE.Conclusions:
In cardiac surgical patients, deficient but not high 25OHD levels are independently associated with the risk of MACCE. Cohort studies should consider potential interrelationships between kidney function, circulating vitamin D metabolite levels, and clinical outcome.