25-Hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D and Postoperative Outcome in Cardiac Surgery

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Abstract

Context:

Several cohort studies have reported U-shaped or inverse J-shaped associations between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25OHD] and clinical outcomes.

Objective:

We aimed to investigate in cardiac surgical patients the association of preoperative 25OHD and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] levels with the risk of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE).

Design:

A prospective cohort study of adult cardiac surgical patients in 2012–2013 was used.

Setting:

The study was conducted at the Heart and Diabetes Center North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

Patients:

A total of 3371 adult patients participated in the study.

Intervention:

None

Measurements:

The main outcome measure was MACCE until discharge. We categorized vitamin D metabolite levels into subgroups and performed multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios (ORs) of MACCE. Moreover, we performed multiple regression analysis to assess the association of 25OHD and circulating 1,25(OH)2D3 with preoperative parameters.

Results:

As compared with patients in the 25OHD reference category (75–100 nmol/L), the multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR) of MACCE was significantly higher in patients with deficient 25OHD levels (< 30 nmol/L) (OR = 2.06 [95%CI: 1.24–3.43]), but was comparable in patients with 25OHD levels > 100 nmol/L (OR = 1.16 [95% CI: 0.56–2.37]). Poor kidney function was an important predictor of high 25OHD (>100 nmol/L) and low 1,25(OH)2D3 levels. 1,25(OH)2D3 was not independently associated with the incidence of MACCE.

Conclusions:

In cardiac surgical patients, deficient but not high 25OHD levels are independently associated with the risk of MACCE. Cohort studies should consider potential interrelationships between kidney function, circulating vitamin D metabolite levels, and clinical outcome.

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