MEN1 Disease Occurring Before 21 Years Old: A 160-Patient Cohort Study From the Groupe d'étude des Tumeurs Endocrines

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Abstract

Context:

Multiple endocrine neoplasia Type-1 (MEN1) in young patients is only described by case reports.

Objective:

To improve the knowledge of MEN1 natural history before 21 years old.

Methods:

Obtain a description of the first symptoms occurring before 21 years old (clinical symptoms, biological or imaging abnormalities), surgical outcomes related to MEN1 Neuro Endocrine Tumors (NETs) occurring in a group of 160 patients extracted from the “Groupe d'étude des Tumeurs Endocrines” MEN1 cohort.

Results:

The first symptoms were related to hyperparathyroidism in 122 cases (75%), pituitary adenoma in 55 cases (34%), nonsecreting pancreatic tumor (NSPT) in 14 cases (9%), insulinoma in 20 cases (12%), gastrinoma in three cases (2%), malignant adrenal tumors in 2 cases (1%), and malignant thymic-NET in one case (1%). Hyperparathyrodism was the first lesion in 90 cases (56%). The first symptoms occurred before 10 years old in 22 cases (14%) and before 5 years old in five cases (3%). Surgery was performed before age 21 in 66 patients (41%) with a total of 74 operations: pituitary adenoma (n = 9, 16%), hyperparathyroidism (n = 38, 31%), gastrinoma (n = 1, 33%), NSPT (n = 5, 36%), and all cases of insulinoma, adrenal tumors, and thymic-NET. One patient died before age 21 due to a thymic-NET. Overall, lesions were malignant in four cases.

Conclusions:

Various MEN1 lesions occurred frequently before 21 years old, but mainly after 10 years of age. Rare, aggressive tumors may develop at any age. Hyperparathyroidism was the most frequently encountered lesion but was not always the first biological or clinical abnormality to appear during the course of MEN1.

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