Although phthalates were shown to have several negative effects on reproductive function in animals, its role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis remains to be elucidated.Objective:
We aimed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) and to compare the urinary levels of several phthalate metabolites between women with and without endometriosis.Design:
For experimental studies, we used endometrial cell culture and nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mouse models. We also performed a prospective case-control study for human sample analyses.Setting:
The study was conducted at an academic center.Main Outcome Measures:
The activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and 9, cellular invasiveness, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk), and expression of p21-activated kinase 4 were analyzed in endometrial cells treated with DEHP. The implant size was compared between NOD/SCID mice fed with and without DEHP. Urinary concentrations of several phthalate metabolites were compared between women with and without endometriosis.Results:
In vitro treatment of endometrial cells with DEHP led to significant increases of MMP-2 and 9 activities, cellular invasiveness, Erk phosphorylation, and p21-activated kinase 4 expression. The size of the endometrial implant was significantly larger in the NOD/SCID mice fed with DEHP compared with those fed with vehicle. The urinary concentration of mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate, and mono (2-ethyl-5-carboxyphentyl) phthalate were significantly higher in women with endometriosis compared with controls.Conclusion:
These findings strongly suggest that exposure to phthalate may lead to establishment of endometriosis by enhancing invasive and proliferative activities of endometrial cells.