Adiposity in Children and CVD Risk: ApoB48 Has a Stronger Association With Central Fat Than Classic Lipid Markers

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Abstract

Context:

Atherosclerotic vascular disease begins in childhood and while progression is multifactorial, obesity in early life is an important risk factor for its development.

Objective:

To determine whether fasting apoB48 remnant lipoproteins (relative to classic lipid markers), is elevated with increasing central adiposity over time in a cohort of Canadian children with a family history of obesity.

Design:

Data were drawn from the ongoing prospective cohort of 630 Caucasian families in Québec, Canada, recruited to assess determinants and effects of childhood obesity (Québec Adiposity and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth [QUALITY]cohort).

Participants:

Children who attended baseline and first followup clinic visits (n =570; age 9.6 y).

Main Outcome Measure:

Trunk fat mass was determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Central fat mass index was calculated as CFMI = trunk fat mass/height2 (kg/m2) and groups created (CFMI <1.5; 1.5–3.0; ≥3.0 kg/m2) to suggest lower, moderate, or higher central adiposity. Changes over time in outcomes (apoB48, triglyceride and total, low-, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) were compared using paired t test and multiple regression that adjusted for age, sex, and Tanner stage.

Results:

Classic lipid markers (total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) improved at followup, whereas apoB48 became worse (increased). ApoB48 increased with increasing central adiposity, highest (37%) in children who transitioned from lower- to moderate-CFMI groups (ΔapoB48 = 1.5 μg/mL). For every 1 kg/m2 increase in central adiposity over the 2-y period, an increase in apoB48 was 14-fold greater among children with lower baseline CFMI, compared with higher CFMI.

Conclusions:

Increased fasting concentrations of apoB48 may be representative of changes in adiposity at lower levels of central fat (early periods of risk).

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