Excessive Age-Related Decline in Functional Ovarian Reserve in Infertile Women: Prospective Cohort of 15,500 Women

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Abstract

Context:

Whether infertile women exhibit accelerated ovarian aging and whether a low ovarian reserve is overrepresented in infertility populations is not known.

Objective:

To compare the age-related decline in antral follicle count (AFC), a biomarker of the ovarian reserve, in fertile and infertile women.

Design:

Cross-sectional data from a large prospective cohort study conducted from January 2013 to December 2014.

Setting:

Thirteen fertility centers across Spain.

Patients or Other Participants:

Consecutive women aged 18 to 45 years of age attending the fertility centers either seeking fertility treatment or as fertile women wishing to act as potential oocyte donors.

Intervention(s):

Standardized AFC assessment on day 2 to 4 of the cycle.

Main Outcome Measure(s):

Age-related decline of AFC for both fertile and infertile women.

Results:

A total of 15 500 women, of whom 5722 were potential donors and 9778 were patients seeking fertility treatment, participated in the study. Average AFC was greater in potential oocyte donors than in infertile women (20 [interquartile range, 16–24] vs 10 [interquartile range, 6–15], respectively; P < .001), a difference that was maintained after adjustment for age (P < .001) in a model predicting log(AFC) from donor vs infertility, adjusting for 2-year age bands. The age-related decline in AFC was much steeper in infertile women compared with that of potential oocyte donors, with an increased prevalence of a low ovarian reserve (AFC < 5) at all ages in infertile women.

Conclusions:

The age-related decline in AFC was substantially greater in infertility patients than potential oocyte donors. Overrepresentation in infertility populations of women with low ovarian reserve may be an additional functional cause of infertility.

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