Risk Factors for Spontaneously Self-Reported Postprandial Hypoglycemia After Bariatric Surgery

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Abstract

Context:

Postprandial hypoglycemia (PPHG) is a recognized complication of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Data on PPHG after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) are scant.

Objective:

The objective of the study was to identify preoperative predictors of PPHG in subjects spontaneously self-reporting PPHG after RYGB or LSG.

Patients, Setting, and Intervention:

Nondiabetic patients spontaneously self-reporting symptoms/signs of PPHG (PPHG group, 21 RYGB and 11 LSG) were compared in a case-control design with subjects who never experienced spontaneous or oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-induced hypoglycemia over 24 months after surgery (No-PPHG group, 13 RYGB and 40 LSG). Paired pre- and postoperative 3-hour OGTTs were analyzed in all participants.

Main Outcome Measures:

Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the oral glucose insulin sensitivity index and β-cell function by mathematical modeling of the C-peptide response to glucose.

Results:

Before surgery, the body mass index was lower in PPHG than No-PPHG patients in the RYGB (P = .002) and trended similarly in the LSG group (P = .08). Fasting glycemia and the glucose-OGTT nadir were lower in the PPHG than the No-PPHG subjects in both surgery groups. Before surgery, insulin sensitivity was higher in PPHG than No-PPHG in the RYGB (393 ± 55 vs 325 ± 44 mL/min−1 · m−2, P = .001) and LSG groups (380 ± 48 vs 339 ± 60 mL/min−1 · m−2, P = .05) and improved to a similar extent in all groups after surgery. Before surgery, β-cell glucose sensitivity was higher in PPHG than No-PPHG in both RYGB (118 ± 67 vs 65 ± 24 pmol/min−1 · m2 · mM−1) and LSG patients (114 ± 32 vs 86 ± 33) (both P = .02) and improved in all subjects after surgery.

Conclusions:

In subjects self-reporting PPHG after surgery, lower presurgery plasma glucose concentrations, higher insulin sensitivity, and better β-cell glucose sensitivity are significant predictors of PPHG after both RYGB and LSG.

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