Endoglin is a proliferation-associated and hypoxia-inducible protein expressed in endothelial cells. The levels of soluble circulating endoglin and their prognostic significance in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are not known. In this observational prospective study serum endoglin levels were measured by ELISA in 183 AMI patients upon admission to hospital and 48 hrs later and in 72 healthy controls. Endoglin levels in AMI patients on admission were significantly lower than in healthy controls (4.25 ± 0.99 ng/ml versus 4.59 ± 0.87 ng/ml; P= 0.013), and decreased further in the first 48 hours (3.65 ± 0.76 ng/ml, P < 0.001). Upon follow-up (median 319 days), patients who died had a significantly greater decrease in serum endoglin level over the first 48 hrs than those who survived (1.03 ± 0.91 versus 0.54 ± 0.55 ng/ml; P= 0.025). Endoglin decrease was an independent predictor of short-term (30 days) (hazard ratio 2.33;95% CI = 1.27–4.23; P= 0.006) cardiovascular mortality, and also predicts overall cardiovascular mortality during the follow-up (median 319 days) in AMI patients (hazard ratio 2.13;95% CI = 1.20–3.78; P= 0.01). In conclusion, early changes in serum endoglin may predict mortality after AMI.