Neurodegeneration and neurofibrillary degeneration are the two main pathological mechanisms of cognitive impairments in Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is not clear what factors determine the fates of neurons during the progress of the disease. Emerging evidence has suggested that mTOR-dependent signalling is involved in the two types of degeneration in AD brains. This review focuses on the roles of mTOR-dependent signalling in the pathogenesis of AD. It summarizes the recent advancements in the understanding of its roles in neu-rodegeneration and neurofibrillary degeneration, as well as the evidence achieved when mTOR-related signalling components were tested as potential biomarkers of cognitive impairments in the clinical diagnosis of AD.