There have been conflicting reports on the effect of Helicobactor pylori eradication on gastric metaplasia in the duodenal bulb (DGM). In the present study, we have investigated the relation-ships between DGM and H. pylori by examining whether or not H. pylori-positive patients had more DGM than H. pylori-negative patients with nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD) or duodenal ulcer (DU), and by examining the effect of eradication of H. pylori on the prevalence and the extent of DGM during the long-term up to 4 years. Fifty H. pylori-positive and seven H. pylori-negative patients with DU and 23 H. pylori-positive and 23 H. pylori-negative NUD subjects were studied. Two duodenal bulb biopsy specimens were taken for histologic evaluation and the presence and the extent of DGM were evaluated. The extent of DGM was classified as none (grade 0), focal (grade 1), multifocal (grade 2), and diffuse type (grade 4). In H. pylori-positive patients with DU, follow-up gastroscopy was conducted 4 weeks, 1 year, and 4 years after H. pylori eradication. DGM was significantly (p < 0.001) more common (DU: 93%, NUD: 22%) and significantly (p < 0.001) greater in extent for patients with DU than for NUD subjects (DU: 1.89, NUD: 0.28). Neither the prevalence nor the extent of DGM was affected by H. pylori status in patients with DU or NUD; the prevalence (extent) of DGM of H. pylori-positive and -negative patients with DU were 96% (1.94) and 71% (1.57), respectively. In the 43 "H. pylori-eradicated" group, initial prevalence of DGM was 95% and those of 4 weeks, 1 year, and 4 years after eradication were 91%, 96%, and 79%, respectively. The initial extent of DGM was 1.93, and those of 4 weeks, 1 year, and 4 years after eradication were 1.90, 1.88, and 1.57, respectively. In conclusion, the prevalence and the extent of DGM were not related to H. pylori in patients with DU or NUD. In addition, the prevalence and the extent of DGM did not change until 1 year after H. pylori eradication in patients with DU, and decreased to the initial level of the H. pylori-negative DU group but without statistical significance after 4-year follow-up.