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The intestinal flora of breast-fed infants is an important physiologic factor in the function of the gut and in the development of the immune system. The current research is part of a group of studies performed to answer the question whether a bovine milk formula supplemented with a prebiotic mixture from galactooligosaccharides and fructooligosaccharides can stimulate an intestinal flora similar to that of breast-fed infants.The prebiotic effect of the oligosaccharide mixture was tested in preterm and term infants by measuring fecal flora using plating as well as fluorescent in situ hybridization techniques. The effect of the oligosaccharides on the bacterial metabolism was studied by measuring short-chain fatty acid production in vitro and the short-chain fatty acid pattern in the stools of a group of term infants.The oligosaccharide mixture increases significantly the number of bifidobacteria and reduces the number of pathogens in term as well as in preterm infants when compared with a group of infants fed an unsupplemented formula. Using a concentration of 0.8 g oligosacchrides/100 mL formula, the amount of bifidobacteria is similar to that typical of breast-fed infants. In vitro, the short-chain fatty acids produced by the mixture of oligosaccharides under study were similar to those produced by the human milk oligosaccharides fraction. In clinical trials the pattern of fecal short-chain fatty acids in infants fed the oligosaccharide mixture was similar to that of breast-fed infants but was significantly different from that of a group of infants fed with an unsupplemented formula. Additionally, the fecal pH was significantly higher in the group fed an unsupplemented formula than in the groups fed either breast milk or a supplemented formula.The data obtained indicate that the prebiotic mixture under study is able to stimulate the development of a microbial flora similar to that of breast-fed infants. Several biota, whose growth is enhanced by this prebiotic mixture, represent important factors in the postnatal development of the immune system. On this evidence it can be suggested that prebiotics may play a role as modulators of the postnatal development of the immune system.