Inpatient Outcomes for Gastrointestinal Bleeding Associated With Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

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The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of inpatient outcomes of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) related to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).


With all-cause mortality increasing in patients undergoing PCIs, outcomes for GIB associated with PCI may be adversely impacted.


Using the National Inpatient Sample (2007 to 2012), we performed a nested case-control study assessing inpatient outcomes including incidence and mortality for PCI-related GIB hospitalizations. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine significant predictors for GIB incidence and mortality.


A total of 9332 (1.2%) of PCI hospitalizations were complicated by GIB with the age-adjusted incidence rate increasing 13% from 2007 (11.3 GIB per 1000 PCI) to 2012 (12.8). Patients ≥75 years of age experienced the steepest incline in GIB incidence, which increased 31% during the study period. Compared with non-GIB patients, mean length of stay (9.4 d vs. 3.3 d) and median cost of care ($29,236 vs. $17,913) was significantly higher. Significant demographic risk factors for GIB included older age and comorbid risk factors included gastritis or duodenitis, and Helicobacter pylori infection.


In total, 1044 (11%) of GIB patients died during hospitalization with the GIB mortality rate increasing 30% from 2007 (95 deaths per 1000 GIB) to 2012 (123). Older age had the strongest association with inpatient mortality.


Inpatient incidence and mortality for PCI-related GIB has been increasing particularly with a large increase in incidence among older patients. A multidisciplinary approach focused on risk-stratifying patients may improve preventable causes of GIB.

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