Nutrition and Nutraceutical Supplements for the Treatment of Hypertension: Part I

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Abstract

Vascular biology, endothelial and vascular smooth muscle, and cardiac dysfunction play a primary role in the initiation and perpetuation of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and target organ damage. Nutrient-gene interactions and epigenetics are predominant factors in promoting beneficial or detrimental effects in cardiovascular health and hypertension. Macronutrients and micronutrients may be able to prevent, control, or treat hypertension through numerous mechanisms related to vascular biology or other mechanisms. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and autoimmune dysfunction are some of the primary factors that initiate and propagate hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The literature suggests that there may be a complementary role of single and component nutraceutical supplements, vitamins, antioxidants, and minerals in the treatment of hypertension when combined with optimal nutrition and other lifestyle modifications. However, many of these studies are small and do not have long-term follow-up for efficacy and safety. The role of these nutrition and nutraceutical supplements will require careful review and additional studies to determine their exact role in the management of hypertension.

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