B-1 cells are physically and functionally unique B cells that produce polyreactive natural antibody. This study examined the activation of B-1 cells in inflamed gingival tissue. Serum IgG antibodies to phosphorylcholine, E. coli LPS, DNA, and some commensal bacteria were examined in adult periodontitis patients and healthy subjects. In addition, the proportion of B-1a (CD20+CD5+) cells and the amount of IL-6 and IL-10 in the inflamed gingival tissues were examined. The serum levels of IgG antibodies to phosphorylcholine, E. coli LPS, and commensal bacteria were significantly higher in the adult periodontitis patients than the healthy subjects. The proportion of B-1a cells and the amount of IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly higher in the inflamed gingival tissues than in peripheral blood from the healthy subjects. These results suggest the activation of B-1 cells in the inflamed gingival tissue of adult periodontitis patients, and that B-1 cells may serve as the first line of defense by producing polyreactive antibodies to phosphorylcholine, LPS, and commensal bacteria.