Cherubism is a rare autoinflammatory bone disorder that is associated with point mutations in the SH3-domain binding protein 2 (SH3BP2) gene, which encodes the adapter protein 3BP2. Individuals with cherubism present with symmetrical fibro-osseous lesions of the jaw, which are attributed to exacerbated osteoclast activation and defective osteoblast differentiation. Although it is a dominant trait in humans, cherubism appears to be recessively transmitted in mice, suggesting the existence of additional factors in the pathogenesis of cherubism. Here, we report that macrophages from 3BP2-deficient mice exhibited dramatically reduced inflammatory responses to microbial challenge and reduced phagocytosis. 3BP2 was necessary for LPS-induced activation of signaling pathways involved in macrophage function, including SRC, VAV1, p38MAPK, IKK?/?, RAC, and actin polymerization pathways. Conversely, we demonstrated that the presence of a single Sh3bp2 cherubic allele and pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) stimulation had a strong cooperative effect on macrophage activation and inflammatory responses in mice. Together, the results from our study in murine genetic models support the notion that infection may represent a driver event in the etiology of cherubism in humans and suggest limiting inflammation in affected individuals may reduce manifestation of cherubic lesions.