Orphan Gpr182 suppresses ERK-mediated intestinal proliferation during regeneration and adenoma formation

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Abstract

Orphan GPCRs provide an opportunity to identify potential pharmacological targets, yet their expression patterns and physiological functions remain challenging to elucidate. Here, we have used a genetically engineered knockin reporter mouse to map the expression pattern of the Gpr182 during development and adulthood. We observed that Gpr182 is expressed at the crypt base throughout the small intestine, where it is enriched in crypt base columnar stem cells, one of the most active stem cell populations in the body. Gpr182 knockdown had no effect on homeostatic intestinal proliferation in vivo, but led to marked increases in proliferation during intestinal regeneration following irradiation-induced injury. In the ApcMin mouse model, which forms spontaneous intestinal adenomas, reductions in Gpr182 led to more adenomas and decreased survival. Loss of Gpr182 enhanced organoid growth efficiency ex vivo in an EGF-dependent manner. Gpr182 reduction led to increased activation of ERK1/2 in basal and challenge models, demonstrating a potential role for this orphan GPCR in regulating the proliferative capacity of the intestine. Importantly, GPR182 expression was profoundly reduced in numerous human carcinomas, including colon adenocarcinoma. Together, these results implicate Gpr182 as a negative regulator of intestinal MAPK signaling–induced proliferation, particularly during regeneration and adenoma formation.

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