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To identify novel genomic regions of interest in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with complex karyotypes, we applied comparative genomic hybridization to microarrays (array-CGH), allowing high-resolution genome-wide screening of genomic imbalances.Sixty AML cases with complex karyotypes were analyzed using array-CGH; parallel analysis of gene expression was performed in a subset of cases.Genomic losses were found more frequently than gains. The most frequent losses affected 5q (77%), 17p (55%), and 7q (45%), and the most frequent genomic gains 11q (40%) and 8q (38%). Critical segments could be delineated to genomic fragments of only 0.8 to a few megabase-pairs of DNA. In lost/gained regions, gene expression profiling detected a gene dosage effect with significant lower/higher average gene expression levels across the genes located in the respective regions. Furthermore, high-level DNA amplifications were identified in several regions: 11q23.3-q24.1 (n = 7), 21q22 (n = 6), 11q23.3 (n = 5), 13q12 (n = 3), 8q24 (n = 3), 9p24 (n = 2), 12p13 (n = 2), and 20q11 (n = 2). Parallel analysis of gene expression in critical amplicons displayed overexpressed candidate genes (eg, C8FW and MYC in 8q24).In conclusion, a large spectrum of genomic imbalances, including novel recurring changes in AML with complex karyotypes, was identified using array-CGH. In addition, the combined analysis of array-CGH data with gene expression profiles allowed the detection of candidate genes involved in the pathogenesis of AML.