Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Bumetanide in Critically Ill Pediatric Patients

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Abstract

This prospective, open-label, clinical trial was conducted to describe the pharmacology of bumetanide in pediatric patients with edema. Nine infants, children, and young adults with edema who were selected for diuretic therapy were studied. After a brief baseline period, each patient received parenteral bumetanide 0.2 mg/kg divided into two equal doses and administered every 12 hours. Urine excretion rate, fractional and total excretion of Na+, Cl-, and K+, creatinine clearance, and plasma and urine concentrations of bumetanide were measured at multiple intervals after drug administration. Bumetanide caused significant increases in the excretion rate of urine and each measured electrolyte. Unexpectedly, creatinine clearance increased dramatically after each dose. Adverse effects, including hypokalemia and hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, were evident by the end of the treatment period. The plasma pharmacokinetics of bumetanide revealed mean ± standard deviation values for total clearance and apparent volume of distribution of 3.9 ± 2.4 mL/min/kg and 0.74 ± 0.54 L/kg, respectively. Patients excreted an average of 34% of each dose unchanged in the urine over 12 hours. Plasma concentrations of bumetanide accurately predicted several renal effects using link model with similar pharmacodynamic parameters in each case. Parenteral enteral bumetanide 0.1 mg/kg administered every 12 hours produced significant beneficial and adverse effects in these critically ill pediatric patients with edema. Pharmacokinetic parameters are similar to those previously reported for infants. Plasma concentrations of bumetanide can predict effect-compartment pharmacodynamics.

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