Pharmacodynamic Interactions of Ciprofloxacin, Piperacillin, and Piperacillin/Tazobactam in Healthy Volunteers

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Abstract

Mathematical modeling methods were used to study pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of the antimicrobial combinations piperacillin plus ciprofloxacin and piperacillin plus tazobactam. Twelve healthy volunteers received the following treatments: piperacillin (4 g), ciprofloxacin (400 mg), piperacillin (4 g) plus ciprofloxacin (400 mg), and piperacillin (4 g) plus tazobactam (0.5 g), via intravenous infusion in a four-period crossover design. Serum drug concentrations were analyzed by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and inhibitory titers were performed against eight organisms. The pharmacodynamic response (growth or no growth) was modeled for each of the monotherapy courses using a Hill-type model where Emax was 1 (100% probability of no growth [P(NG)]), and EC50 was the concentration associated with a 50% P(NG). For piperacillin plus ciprofloxacin, P(NG) was a function of 1) plasma concentrations for both drugs; 2) EC50 values from the monotherapy courses; and 3) theta, an interaction term that accommodates synergy, additivity, or antagonism. For piperacillin/tazobactam, the serum ultrafiltrate area under the inhibitory curve was compared with that of piperacillin alone to determine the benefit of tazobactam. The interaction between piperacillin and ciprofloxacin was additive. The addition of tazobactam to piperacillin was beneficial against certain organisms. The model developed can be used to evaluate the activity of combination regimens against representative pathogens.

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