A predictive population pharmacokinetic model was developed for a novel cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor CS-706, using data from 130 subjects in 3 phase 1 trials after single or multiple doses of CS-706 (2− to 800-mg doses daily, up to 14 days) and validated using sparse data from a separate study. A 2-compartment model described the data. Typical apparent clearance (CL/F) was 47.2 L/h and was reduced by 43% at doses greater than 200 mg. Apparent clearance was decreased by 38% in female subjects and by 64% and 15%, respectively, in poor/intermediate CYP 2D6 and poor CYP 2C9 metabolizers. Typical apparent volume of the central compartment was 166 L and increased with body weight. Bioavailability increased by 42% after nighttime doses and decreased saturably with increasing dose (50% reduction at 221 mg). Predicted exposures in Japanese subjects were reduced relative to whites because of a lower frequency of poor metabolizers. The model may aid in optimizing the design of future studies and predicting exposures in other subpopulations.