We determined cyclo-oxygenase-1 and cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibition in healthy middle-aged subjects (41–65 years) randomly assigned to four 7-day treatment sequences of etoricoxib 90 mg every day, celecoxib 200 mg twice a day, diclofenac 75 mg twice a day, or placebo in a double-blind, randomized, 4-period crossover study. Maximum inhibition of thromboxane B2 (cyclo-oxygenase-1 activity) in clotting whole blood on day 7 (0–24 hours postdose) was the primary endpoint. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced prostaglandin E2 in whole blood (cyclo-oxygenase-2 activity) was assessed on day 7 (0–24 hours postdose) as a secondary endpoint. Diclofenac had significantly greater maximum inhibition of thromboxane B2 versus each comparator (P < .001); placebo 2.4% (95% confidence interval: 8.7% to 12.3%), diclofenac 92.2% (91.4% to 92.9%), etoricoxib 15.5% (6.6% to 23.5%), and celecoxib 20.2% (11.5% to 28.1%). Prostaglandin E2 synthesis was inhibited with a rank order of potency of diclofenac > etoricoxib > celecoxib. In summary, at doses commonly used in rheumatoid arthritis, diclofenac significantly inhibits both cyclo-oxygenase-1 and cyclo-oxygenase-2, whereas etoricoxib and celecoxib significantly inhibit cyclo-oxygenase-2 and do not substantially inhibit cyclo-oxygenase-1.