Pharmacokinetics (PK) of doripenem was determined during high volume hemodiafiltration (HVHDF) in patients with septic shock. A single 500 mg dose of doripenem was administered as a 1 hour infusion during HVHDF to 9 patients. Arterial blood samples were collected before and at 30 or 60 minute intervals over 8 hours (12 samples) after study drug administration. Doripenem concentrations were determined by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Population PK analysis and Monte Carlo simulation of 1,000 subjects were performed. The median convective volume of HVHDF was 10.3 L/h and urine output during the sampling period was 70 mL. The population mean total doripenem clearance on HVHDF was 6.82 L/h, volume of distribution of central compartment 10.8 L, and of peripheral compartment 12.1 L. Doses of 500 mg every 8 hours resulted in 88.5% probability of attaining the target of 50% time over MIC for bacteria with MIC = 2 μg/mL at 48 hours, when doubling of MIC during that time was assumed. Significant elimination of doripenem occurs during HVHDF. Doses of 500 mg every 8 hours are necessary for treatment of infections caused by susceptible bacteria during extended HVHDF.