Exemestane is an aromatase inhibitor drug used for the treatment of hormone-dependent breast cancer. 17-Hydroexemestane, the major and biologically active metabolite of exemestane in humans, is eliminated via glucuronidation by the polymorphic UGT2B17 phase II drug-metabolizing enzyme. Previous microsomal studies have shown that UGT2B17 gene deletion affects the intrinsic hepatic clearances of 17-hydroexemestane in vitro. In this open-label study we set out to assess the effect of UGT2B17 gene deletion on the pharmacokinetics of 17-hydroexemestane in healthy female volunteers with and without UGT2B17. To achieve this goal, 14 healthy postmenopausal women (8 carriers of the homozygous UGT2B17 wild-type allele and 6 carriers of the homozygous UGT2B17 gene-deletion allele) were enrolled and invited to receive a single 25-mg oral dose of exemestane. Pharmacokinetics was assessed over 72 hours postdosing. Our results showed that there were statistically significant differences in plasma 17-hydroexemestane AUC0-∞ (P = .0007) and urine 17-hydroexemestane C24h (P = .001) between UGT2B17 genotype groups. Our data suggest that UGT2B17 gene deletion influences 17-hydroexemestane pharmacokinetics in humans.