Hyponatremia in Guillain–Barré Syndrome

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Objectives:To evaluate incidence, risk factors, and in-hospital outcomes associated with hyponatremia in patients hospitalized for Guillain–Barré Syndrome (GBS).Methods:We identified adult patients with GBS in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2002–2011). Univariate and multivariable analyses were used.Results:Among 54,778 patients hospitalized for GBS, the incidence of hyponatremia was 11.8% (compared with 4.0% in non-GBS patients) and increased from 6.9% in 2002 to 13.5% in 2011 (P < 0.0001). Risk factors associated with hyponatremia in multivariable analysis included advanced age, deficiency anemia, alcohol abuse, hypertension, and intravenous immunoglobulin (all P < 0.0001). Hyponatremia was associated with prolonged length of stay (16.07 vs. 10.41, days), increased costs (54,001 vs. 34,125, $USD), and mortality (20.5% vs. 11.6%) (all P < 0.0001). In multivariable analysis, hyponatremia was independently associated with adverse discharge disposition (odds ratio: 2.07, 95% confidence interval, 1.91–2.25, P < 0.0001).Conclusions:Hyponatremia is prevalent in GBS and is detrimental to patient-centered outcomes and health care costs. Sodium levels should be carefully monitored in high-risk patients.

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