Two pharmacoeconomic studies on the treatment of acute seizures have been conducted. In 1991, Kriel and colleagues surveyed parents of children with a history of cluster seizures, prolonged seizures, or status epilepticus who had been instructed in the use of rectal diazepam. A comparison of data before instruction with data after instruction showed a reduced need for emergency department visits with rectal diazepam. Instruction thus provided a pharmacoeconomic benefit, despite the cost of the product. In 1996, Marchetti and coworkers found that intravenous fosphenytoin was associated with fewer adverse events than intravenous phenytoin. Fosphenytoin thus reduced the need for adverse event management and provided a substantial pharmacoeconomic benefit, despite its higher cost, compared with phenytoin. This study had a number of limitations, however, and hospital pharmacists remain resistant to the use of fosphenytoin. Additional studies may provide more pharmacoeconomic data to support the greater use of fosphenytoin in the treatment of acute pediatric seizures. (J Child Neurol 1998;13(Suppl 1):S27-S29).