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Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is a severe form of childhood-onset epilepsy associated with high morbidity and mortality. The peak period for manifestations of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is between ages 3 and 5 years, a time of critical brain development and corresponding vulnerability to the electroclinical dysfunction arising from Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Diagnosis is based on a triad of symptoms: multiple seizure types, cognitive impairment, and slow spike-and-wave pattern on electroencephalography. In practice, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome presentation is diverse, and there may be a delay between initial symptoms and emergence of the full triad of clinical features. Additionally, differential diagnosis is complicated by the resemblance of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome to other forms of epilepsy and by the need for varied diagnostic techniques requiring specific clinical skills. Because diagnosis is complex and early intervention may lead to improved outcomes, clinicians should consider treatment when Lennox-Gastaut syndrome symptoms are present, even in the absence of a formal diagnosis.