Postconcussive Symptoms After Single and Repeated Concussions in 10- to 20-Year-Olds: A Cross-Sectional Study

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Abstract

The objective was to characterize cognitive deficits and postconcussive symptoms in a pediatric population with no concussion, a single concussion, and ≥2 concussions, using a cross-sectional design. Cognitive function and postconcussive symptoms were assessed in participants (age 10-20) with no concussion (n = 1118), single concussion (n = 368), and repeated (≥2) concussions (n = 252). Analyses were adjusted for age and gender. Individuals with ≥2 concussions exhibited more total postconcussive symptoms; more loss of consciousness, amnesia and confusion; more headaches; and poorer cognitive function compared to no concussion and single concussion. Postconcussive symptoms may play a modulatory role in cognitive dysfunction after repeated concussions as those with loss of consciousness, amnesia, confusion, or headaches exhibited worse verbal memory, visual memory, visual-motor processing, and poorer impulse control compared to those without these symptoms. This analysis demonstrates that repeated concussions is associated with poorer cognitive function and postconcussive symptoms compared to a single concussion.

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