Cigarette smoking and health-promoting behaviours among tuberculosis patients in rural areas: S-L Tsai et al.

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Abstract

Aims and objectives

To explore cigarette smoking and health-promoting behaviours among disadvantaged adults before their tuberculosis diagnosis and after their tuberculosis treatment.

Background

Although tuberculosis infection is associated with impaired immune function, healthy lifestyle habits can play a role in improving the immune system. However, limited research has explored the health-promoting behaviours and cigarette smoking habits among tuberculosis patients in Taiwan.

Design

A cross-sectional retrospective study with a convenience sample.

Methods

This study was conducted between May 2013–June 2014 with 123 patients at a rural district hospital in Chiayi County, Taiwan. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, univariate analysis and stepwise regression analysis.

Results

Tuberculosis tended to be associated with less education, male sex, malnutrition, cigarette smoking and unhealthy lifestyle habits before the tuberculosis diagnosis. The percentage of smoking decreased from 46·9% before to 30·2% after the tuberculosis diagnosis. Body mass index and health-promoting behaviours also significantly improved after tuberculosis treatment. After controlling for potential confounding factors, multivariate analysis identified chronic disease and completed treatment as significant factors that were associated with current health-promoting behaviours.

Conclusions

A high prevalence of cigarette smoking and low levels of health-promoting behaviours were observed before the diagnosis and during or after completing tuberculosis treatment.

Relevance to clinical practice

This study's findings indicate the importance of promoting healthy lifestyle changes among tuberculosis patients; aggressive measures should be implemented immediately after the first diagnosis of tuberculosis. Furthermore, health promotion and smoking cessation programmes should be initiated in the general population to prevent activation of latent tuberculosis infection, and these programmes should specifically target men and rural residents.

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