Woman−−A sense of identity: A counseling intervention to facilitate personal growth in women

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An intervention was designed, implemented, and evaluated with the goal of facilitating the psychological growth of women. Focus was on increased self-esteem and competence through self-awareness, skills development, cognitive changes, and changes in overt behavior. Three evaluation studies are described indicating the model's effectiveness with 2 populations of college women. 47 female students who were heterogeneous in age, marital, work, and educational status were Ss in Study 1. Pretest, posttest, and follow-up results on the Adjective Check List and the Self-Assessment Scale indicated statistically significant increases in self-esteem, confidence, and autonomy and decreases in deference and dependency. Gains were sustained over follow-up. In Study 2, pretests and posttests were completed on the Adjective Check List, the Attitudes Toward Women Scale, the Rotter Internal-External Locus of Control Scale, and the Adult Self-Expression Scale for 1 control group of 42 Ss and 2 intervention groups of 103 Ss. Significant changes occurred in the intervention groups on all measures and in the control group only on the Attitudes Toward Women Scale. In Study 3 with 33 Ss, change was measured over a 10-wk waiting period prior to the intervention using the instruments of Study 2. There was essentially no change over the waiting period, but significant change over the intervention. Use of the model as a training program is discussed as are limitations of the evaluations completed. (23 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

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