Confirmatory Factor Analytic Investigation of Variance Composition, Gender Invariance, and Validity of the Male Role Norms Inventory-Adolescent-revised (MRNI-A-r)

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Confirmatory factor analysis of responses to the Male Role Norms Inventory-Adolescent-revised (MRNI-A-r) from 384 middle school students (163 boys, 221 girls) indicated that the best fit to the data was a bifactor model incorporating the hypothesized 3-factor structure while explicitly modeling an additional, general factor. Specifically, each item-level indicator loaded simultaneously on 2 factors: a general traditional masculinity ideology factor and a specific factor corresponding to 1 of the 3 hypothesized masculine norms for adolescents: Emotionally Detached Dominance, Toughness, and Avoidance of Femininity. Invariance testing across gender supported metric invariance for the general factor only. Although item loadings on the general factor were similar across boys and girls, the specific factor loadings varied substantially, with many becoming nonsignificant in the presence of the general factor for girls. A structural regression analysis predicting latent variables of the Meanings of Adolescent Masculinity Scale (MAMS), the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Discipline, School Difficulties, and Positive Behavior Scale (DSDPBS) indicated that the general factor was a strong predictor of MAMS for both genders and DSDPBS for girls. Findings indicate that the MRNI-A-r general factor is a valid and reliable indicator of overall internalization of traditional masculinity ideology in adolescents; however, the specific factors may have different meanings for boys as compared with girls and lack validity in the presence of the general factor. These findings are consistent with a developmental perspective of gender ideology that views adolescence as a time when a differentiated cognitive schema of masculine norms is beginning to develop.

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