The cardiovascular actions of combined intravenous (i.v.) diltiazem and propranolol were studied in barbiturate-anesthetized dogs. When given alone, diltiazem increased cardiac output (CO) and P-R interval duration (P-R) while decreasing mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and systemic vascular resistance (SVR). Propranolol alone decreased CO and HR while increasing SVR. With the same i.v. doses, combined infusion of diltiazem and propranolol rapidly resulted in depression of CO to levels similar to those achieved with propranolol β-adrenoceptor blockade alone. The combination decreased MAP to levels achieved with diltiazeminduced calcium channel blockade. P-R increased beyond the durations produced by either drug given alone. Pharmacokinetic interactions were not apparent, although slight increases in propranolol plasma concentrations were observed during combined drug infusions. These studies support clinical observations that the cardiovascular effects resulting from a combination of diltiazem and propranolol may be attributed to the characteristic cardiovascular actions of each individual drug.