Renal Morphology and Function in Dogs After Treatment with the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor Quinapril

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Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have proven to be effective therapeutic agents for treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure (CHF). Because of the role the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays in maintaining renal homeostasis, the effect these compounds have on renal function has been of interest. We assessed the effect of toxicologically significant doses of the new ACE inhibitor, quinapril, on renal function and morphology in dogs. Groups of 3 male beagle dogs were administered quinapril orally at daily doses of 0, 25, 125, or 250 mg/kg for 13 weeks. After treatment, animals were anesthetized and assessed for clinical pathologic and renal functional disturbances under normal conditions and after volume expansion and diuresis. Renal histopathology was conducted on perfusion-fixed kidney. No adverse effects on sensitive measures of renal function were detected; changes observed were consistent with the pharmacologic consequences of ACE inhibition. Decreased serum Na+ and Cl- ( < 10%) and hematocrit at 125 and 250 mg/kg, twofold increases in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) at 250 mg/kg, and decreased arterial blood pressure (BP) (20%) were observed at all doses. Under baseline conditions, urine flow increased 81–123% in quinapril-treated animals as compared with controls and urine specific gravities decreased 16% relative to controls at 125 and 250 mg/kg. Microscopically, juxtaglomerular hypertrophy was observed at all doses. At 250 mg/kg, minimal, widely scattered cortical tubular alterations were observed; glomerular lesions were not. No significant adverse effects of quinapril on renal morphology or function were observed at doses ~250 times the therapeutic dose.

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