MicroRNA (miR)-26 was found to be downregulated in cardiac diseases. In this study, the critical role of miR-26 in myocardial hypertrophy in both in vivo and in vitro was investigated. Sixteen male Wistar rats that underwent sham or transverse abdominal aortic constriction (TAAC) surgery were divided into control or TAAC group. Cardiomyocytes were isolated from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats. Our study demonstrated that miR-26a/b was downregulated in both TAAC rat model and cardiomyocytes. The results of luciferase assays also suggested that glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) may be a direct target of miR-26. The overexpression of miR-26 attenuated GSK3β expression and inhibited myocardial hypertrophy. The downregulation of miR-26 reversed these effects. Furthermore, silence of GSK3β gene phenocopied the anti-hypertrophy effects of miR-26, whereas overexpression of this protein attenuated the effects of miR-26. Taken together, these data suggest that miR-26 regulates pathological structural changes in the rat heart, which may be associated with suppression of the GSK3β signaling pathway, and implicate the potential application of miR-26 in diagnosis and therapy of cardiac hypertrophy.