EGFR-TKI, Erlotinib, Causes Hypomagnesemia, Oxidative Stress, and Cardiac Dysfunction: Attenuation by NK-1 Receptor Blockade

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Abstract

To determine whether the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, erlotinib may cause hypomagnesemia, inflammation, and cardiac stress, erlotinib was administered to rats (10 mg·kg−1·d−1) for 9 weeks. Plasma magnesium decreased progressively between 3 and 9 weeks (−9% to −26%). Modest increases in plasma substance P (SP) occurred at 3 (27%) and 9 (25%) weeks. Neutrophil superoxide-generating activity increased 3-fold, and plasma 8-isoprostane rose 210%, along with noticeable appearance of cardiac perivascular nitrotyrosine. The neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonist, aprepitant (2 mg·kg−1·d−1), attenuated erlotinib-induced hypomagnesemia up to 42%, reduced circulating SP, suppressed neutrophil superoxide activity and 8-isoprostane elevations; cardiac nitrotyrosine was diminished. Echocardiography revealed mild to moderately decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (−11%) and % fractional shortening (−17%) by 7 weeks of erlotinib treatment and significant reduction (−17.5%) in mitral valve E/A ratio at week 9 indicative of systolic and early diastolic dysfunction. Mild thinning of the left ventricular posterior wall suggested early dilated cardiomyopathy. Aprepitant completely prevented the erlotinib-induced systolic and diastolic dysfunction and partially attenuated the anatomical changes. Thus, chronic erlotinib treatment does induce moderate hypomagnesemia, triggering SP-mediated oxidative/inflammation stress and mild-to-moderate cardiac dysfunction, which can largely be corrected by the administration of the SP receptor blocker.

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