Cardiac hypertrophy is a primary pathological change associated with cardiovascular diseases. Dysregulated microRNAs are frequent in cardiovascular diseases and contribute to cardiac hypertrophy by regulating a series of targeted genes. In this study, a rat model of cardiac hypertrophy was created by transverse abdominal aortic constriction, and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes was induced using angiotensin II (AngII) to investigate the role of miR-101 in myocardial hypertrophy. We demonstrated that miR-101 was downregulated in both the transverse abdominal aortic constriction rat model and hypertrophic cardiac myocytes. The overexpression of miR-101 in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, which was accompanied by a reduced Rab1a level, inhibits 3 cardinal features of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy: fetal gene expression, protein synthesis, and cell enlargement. Conversely, the downregulation of miR-101 reverses these effects. Furthermore, the luciferase reporter system demonstrated that Rab1a is a target gene of miR-101, and the ectopic expression of Rab1a can reverse the cardiomyocyte hypertrophy inhibitory activity of miR-101. Taken together, our findings identify miR-101 as an important regulator in cardiac hypertrophy and implicate the potential application of miR-101 in the therapy of cardiac hypertrophy.