Combined Neprilysin and RAS Inhibition in Cardiovascular Diseases: A Review of Clinical Studies

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Abstract

The aim of this comprehensive review article is to emphasize on the possible exploration of a new therapeutic approach in the management of heart failure (HF) and other cardiovascular diseases: the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system–neprilysin combination inhibitors, also called angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor, valsartan/sacubitril (LCZ696). Sacubitril is an inhibitor of neutral endopeptidase (NEP) which degrades vasoactive peptides such as atrial natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide. Valsartan is an angiotensin receptor blocker which is usually used in hypertension. Although HF has been a global health burden, for decades there has been lack of novel therapeutic options as many trials failed due to potential side effects. With the published results of the landmark trial Prospective comparison of ARNI with ACEI to Determine the Impact on Global Mortality and morbidity in HF (PARADIGM-HF), a new direction in the treatment of HF is anticipated. This trial showed that LCZ696 was able to reduce the primary composite end point of cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization, and similar reduction was observed for cardiovascular death. This review article also highlights the results of 4 published trials of LCZ696 in both HTN and HF. After the results of PARADIGM-HF trial, the major challenge will be outcome in regular clinical practice, as subjects in the trial were mostly stable New York Heart Association class II patients with no comorbidities. In addition, many trials are simultaneously in progress regarding the use of LCZ696 in patients with diabetes, renal failure, and hepatic impairment. To conclude, sacubitril/valsartan significantly improved morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic HF, but it will need meticulous attention when used in real outpatient practice.

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