Copaiba oil comes from an Amazonian tree and has been used as an alternative medicine in Brazil. However, it has not been investigated yet in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This study was designed to test whether copaiba oil or nanocapsules containing this oil could modulate monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Male Wistar rats (170 ± 20 g) received oil or nanocapsules containing this oil (400 mg/kg) by gavage daily for 1 week. At the end of this period, a single injection of MCT (60 mg/kg i.p.) was administered and measurements were performed after 3 weeks. The animals were divided into 6 groups: control, copaiba oil, nanocapsules with copaiba oil, MCT, oil + MCT, and nanocapsules + MCT. Afterward, echocardiographic assessments were performed, and rats were killed to collect hearts for morphometry and oxidative stress. MCT promoted a significant increase in pulmonary vascular resistance, right ventricle (RV) hypertrophy, and RV oxidative stress. Both oil and copaiba nanocapsules significantly reduced RV hypertrophy and oxidative stress. Pulmonary vascular resistance was reduced by copaiba oil in natura but not by nanocapsules. In conclusion, copaiba oil seems to offer protection against MCT-induced PAH. Our preliminary results suggest that copaiba oil may be an important adjuvant treatment for PAH.