Ameliorative Effect of Epigallocatechin Gallate on Cardiac Hypertrophy and Fibrosis in Aged Rats

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Abstract

The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on aging-mediated cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and apoptosis. The Wistar albino rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 18). Group I: young (3 months), group II: aged (24–26 months), group III: aged + EGCG (200 mg/kg for 30 days), and group IV: young + EGCG. At the end of 30 days, EGCG administration to the aged animals showed significant (P < 0.001) reduction of low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, total cholesterol with concomitant increase of high-density lipoprotein (P < 0.001) when compared with aged rats. Increased (P < 0.001) heart volume, weight with concomitant increase of left ventricular wall thickness, and reduced ventricular cavity were observed in aged rats supplemented with EGCG compared with aged animals. Histology and histomorphometry study of aged animals treated with EGCG showed marked increases in the diameter and volume of cardiomyocytes with concomitant reduction of numerical density when compared with aged animals. Reduced reactive oxygen species (P < 0.001) production with association of increased antioxidant defense system (P < 0.001) in aged hearts supplemented with EGCG when compared with aged animals. TUNEL staining and fibrosis showed a marked increase in apoptotic cell death (P < 0.001) and collagen deposition (P < 0.001) in aged animals treated with EGCG when compared with aged animals. Aged animals treated with EGCG showed a marked increase in protein expression of TGFβ, TNFα, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and significant (P < 0.001) alteration in the gene expression of TGFβ, TNFα, NF-κB, α-SMA, and Nrf2 when compared with aged animals. Taken together, it is evident that EGCG may potentially inhibit aging-induced cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and apoptosis, thereby preserving cardiac function. The proposed mechanism would be inhibition of reactive oxygen species–dependent activation of TGFβ1, TNFα, and NF-κB signaling pathway. Hence, the present study suggests that EGCG can be useful to fight against aging-induced cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and apoptosis.

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