Sleep problems in children and adolescents are common, and they impact multiple domains of child and family functioning. Psychologists have a critical role in the assessment and treatment of sleep problems and are integral to interdisciplinary sleep teams. Certain sleep problems may be related to co-morbid psychological or developmental conditions, and others are considered to be primarily medical, yet behavioral approaches may be applicable. There are also sleep problems considered to be behavioral in etiology (e.g. inadequate sleep hygiene, behavioral insomnia of childhood, nightmares/bad dreams/nighttime fears, delayed sleep phase syndrome, and psychophysiological insomnia). In this article, the assessment of behavioral sleep problems, as well as specific behavioral sleep disorders, and their treatments will be discussed.