TNF-α TGF-β2 and IL-1β levels in gingival and peri-implant crevicular fluid before and after de novo plaque accumulation

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The aim of this split-mouth study was to investigate levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β2) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) after a 21-day-period of de novo plaque accumulation in the same patient.

Material and Methods

In 25 patients, samples of GCF and PICF were collected in the sulcus of the tooth and of the implant after professional hygiene. After the no-hygiene phase (21 days), second samples of GCF and PICF were taken. Third samples were collected after 69 days of re-establishment oral hygiene techniques. The crevicular fluids were used to determine the volume and the levels of TNF-α, TGF-β2 and IL-1β.


The volume of the crevicular fluids increased significantly after 21 days of plaque accumulation around teeth and implants and decreased significantly by 69 days. TNF-α and TGF-β2 did not change significantly among the three different samples. A significant increase of IL-1β was observed after plaque accumulation around the teeth GCF, whereas in the PICF the increase was not statistically significant.


These data suggest that increased volumes of GCF and PICF could be useful markers of early inflammation in gingival and peri-implant tissues. In the presence of de novo plaque, implants showed lower, and nearly significant, levels of IL-1β compared with teeth.

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