Periodontal infection, impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance: results from the Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2010

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We investigated the relationship between periodontal disease, a clinical manifestation of periodontal infection, and pre-diabetes.


The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2010 enrolled 1165 diabetes-free adults (51% female) aged 30–80 years (mean ± SD=50 ± 14) who received a full-mouth periodontal examination and an oral glucose tolerance test. Participants were classified as having none/mild, moderate or severe periodontitis and also according to mean probing depth ≥2.19 mm or attachment loss ≥1.78 mm, (respective 75th percentiles). Pre-diabetes was defined according to ADA criteria as either: (i) impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). In multivariable logistic regression models, the odds of IFG and IGT were regressed on levels of periodontitis category.


The odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for having IGT among participants with moderate or severe periodontitis, relative to participants with none/mild periodontitis were 1.07 [0.50, 2.25] and 1.93 [1.18, 3.17], p = 0.02. The ORs for having IFG were 1.14 [0.74, 1.77] and 1.12 [0.58, 2.18], p = 0.84. PD ≥75th percentile was related to a 105% increase in the odds of IGT: OR [95% CI] = 2.05 [1.24, 3.39], p = 0.005.


Periodontal infection was positively associated with prevalent impaired glucose tolerance in a cross-sectional study among a nationally representative sample.

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