Periodontal infection, impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance: results from the Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2010

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Abstract

Aim:

We investigated the relationship between periodontal disease, a clinical manifestation of periodontal infection, and pre-diabetes.

Methods:

The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2010 enrolled 1165 diabetes-free adults (51% female) aged 30–80 years (mean ± SD=50 ± 14) who received a full-mouth periodontal examination and an oral glucose tolerance test. Participants were classified as having none/mild, moderate or severe periodontitis and also according to mean probing depth ≥2.19 mm or attachment loss ≥1.78 mm, (respective 75th percentiles). Pre-diabetes was defined according to ADA criteria as either: (i) impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). In multivariable logistic regression models, the odds of IFG and IGT were regressed on levels of periodontitis category.

Results:

The odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for having IGT among participants with moderate or severe periodontitis, relative to participants with none/mild periodontitis were 1.07 [0.50, 2.25] and 1.93 [1.18, 3.17], p = 0.02. The ORs for having IFG were 1.14 [0.74, 1.77] and 1.12 [0.58, 2.18], p = 0.84. PD ≥75th percentile was related to a 105% increase in the odds of IGT: OR [95% CI] = 2.05 [1.24, 3.39], p = 0.005.

Conclusions:

Periodontal infection was positively associated with prevalent impaired glucose tolerance in a cross-sectional study among a nationally representative sample.

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